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Table 1 Carcinogenic mechanism associated with vitamin D in skin cancer and other tumors

From: Vitamin D axis and its role in skin carcinogenesis: a comprehensive review

Mechanism References
General carcinogenesis:
 Anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, pro-apoptotic, cell-differentiating and anti-invasive effects in tumor cells [2931]
 Higher levels of VD are correlated with decreased risk of breast, colon, renal, hepatic and tobacco-related cancers. [3, 3337]
 Associated to a decrease in the risk of specific cancer overall survival in breast, colon, hepatic, and bladder carcinomas [3]
 Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of cancer in postmenopausal women [40]
Skin cancer:
 Reduction in melanoma cells proliferation in vitro. [52]
 Induces melanoma cells differentiation, inhibits angiogenesis and invasion [29]
 Activates DNA repair enzymes after UV irradiation of melanocytes [45, 54]
 Inhibits sonic hedgehog pathway in basal cell carcinoma [46]
 Inhibits squamous cell carcinoma cells [49]
 Role in the expression of E-cadherin and B-catenin in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and in melanoma. [29, 43, 44]
 Arrests tumor cell cycle in G1/S, inhibiting cyclin D1 and upregulating p27 and p21. [53]