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Table 2 Vitamin D associated functions

From: Vitamin D axis and its role in skin carcinogenesis: a comprehensive review

Function Effect Reference
Metabolism • Calcium Homeostasis
• Anabolic effect in muscle metabolism
• VD deficiency associated with obesity and type II Diabetes mellitus
[16]
[5, 16, 18]
[5, 18]
Immunologic Effect on T lymphocytes:
• stimulation TH2 and T regulatory cells
• reduces TH1 and TH17 response
Effect on B lymphocytes:
• inhibits proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin production
Effect on cytokines:
• increases IL-10
• decreases IL-17, IL-21
• stimulates cathelicidin and in β-defensin in macrophages
Inhibits Dendritic cell maturation
[9, 18, 25, 26]
[18, 24]
[9, 23]
[27, 28]
Infections Low VD level is associated with tuberculosis, influenza, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, [1822]
Autoimune diseases Low VD level associated with Lupus, asthma, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vitiligo and multiple sclerosis [5, 9]
Cardiovascular disease VD deficiency associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and mortality [5]
Neuroprotective VD is present in substantia nigra and hypothalamus
VD deficiency associated with Alzheimer’s disease
[13]
Pregnancy Low VD levels during pregnancy associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and small for gestational age infants. [5]
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