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Table 2 Phenotypic analysis of human cancer cell lines transfected with SM targeting cancer-related genes

From: Splicing isoform-specific functional genomic in cancer cells

Gene ASE type Backbone chemistry Relative location Splicing effect Phenotype Ref.
MDM2 cassette PNA Spanning the 3’ss intron-exon junction Promote intron retention and exon exclusion Sensitize JAR cells to camptothecin [81]
PRKCD Alt5’ 2’-MOE-PS Covering the proximal 5’ss Promote usage of the distal 5’ss Induce apoptosis in NT2 cells [68]
FLT1
(VEGFR1)
cassette morpholino Spanning 5’ss exon-intron junction Induce exon exclusion Suppress laser-induced choroidal neovascularization [82]
KDR
(VEGFR2)
cassette morpholino Spanning 5’ss exon-intron junction Induce exon exclusion Suppress laser-induced choroidal neovascularization [83]
MCL1 cassette morpholino Spanning 3’ss intron-exon junction Induce exon exclusion Induce apoptosis in BCC and AGS cells [84]
morpholino Spanning 5’ss exon-intron junction Induce exon exclusion Induce apoptosis in BCC and AGS cells [84]
VEGF cassette morpholino Spanning 3’ss intron-exon junction Induce exon exclusion Induce angiogenesis in PC-3 [85]
TAF6 Alt5’ PS-2’OMe Fully exonic between both 5;ss Promote the proximal 5’ss Induce apoptosis in HeLa cells [86]
SYK cassette 2’OMe Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Induce apoptosis in SKOV3ip1 [43]
ATR cassette PS-2’OMe Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Induce apoptosis of Eu-myc B cells [58]
EP400 cassette PS-2’OMe Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Induce apoptosis of Eu-myc B cells [58]
DVL1 Intron retention PS-2’OMe 2 oligonucleotides
One Spanning 5’ss exon-intron junction
One Spanning 3’ss intron-exon junction
Promote intron retention Induce apoptosis of Eu-myc B cells [58]
ERBB4 cassette LNA, 2’OMe Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Inhibit growth in MCF7 and T47D [87]
PKM Mutually exclusive two exon cassette PS-2’MOE Fully exonic Induce concommittant exon 9 inclusion and exon 10 exclusion Induce apoptosis in U87-MG and A172 cells [88]
STAT3 Alt3’ morpholino Spanning 3’ss intron-exon junction Promote distal 3’ss Induce cell death in MDA-MB-435 and MBA-MB-468 [89]
MDM4 cassette morpholino Spanning 5’ss exon-intron junction Induce exon exclusion Inhibit cell growth in melanoma cell lines [90]
GLDC cassette PS 2’OMe Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Inhibit cell growth of A549 cells [91]
USP5 Alt5’ morpholino Covering the proximal 5’ss Promote usage of the distal 5’ss Inhibit cell growth and migration in U251 and LN229 [92]
BRCA1 cassette morpholino Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Inhibit cell growth in combination with PARP inhibitor in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 [93]
MKNK2 Alt3’ PS-2’MOE and
PS-2’OMe
Spanning distal 3’ss junction Promote proximal 3’ss Sensitize cells to chemotherapy [94]
BIM cassette PS-2’MOE Fully exonic Induce exon exclusion Restored imatinib-induced apoptosis in KCL22 cells [95]
  1. The ASE type, backbone chemistry of the oligonucleotide used, Relative location on the ASE, splicing effect and resulting phenotype is described. 2’-MOE 2’ OMethoxyethyl, PS Phosphorothioate, 2’OMe 2’OMethyl, Ref. Reference