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Table 2 Association of p27kip1 expression with various clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic parameters in patients with head and neck Squamous cell carcinoma

From: Low p27kip1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: association with risk factors and adverse outcomes

  Low p27kip1 Expression (n = 39) High p27kip1 Expression (n = 66) P-Value Relative Risk (95% CI)
Age(years)  
 Mean ± SDa 49.46 ± 14.13 51.83 ± 11.20 0.175** NA
Groupsd  
  ≤ 30 years 4(10.3) 2(3) 0.323** NA
 31–50 years 19(48.7) 32(48.5)
  > 50 years 16(41) 32(48.5)
Tumor Size (cm)  
 Mean ± SD° 3.80 ± 1.44 2.96 ± 1.44 0.056** NA
Groupsc     
 T1(≤2 cm) 9(23.1) 18(27.3) 0.079** NA
 T2(2.1–4.0 cm) 16(41) 37(56.1)
 T3(> 4 cm) 14(35.9) 11(16.7)
Tumor Depth (cm)  
 Mean ± SD° 1.04 ± 0.65 1.20 ± 0.79 0.534 NA
Groups®     
  < 2 cm 35(89.7) 54(81.8) 0.275** 0.514 (0.154–1.723)
  ≥ 2 cm 4(10.3) 12(18.2)
Disease Free Survival (months)° 16.08 ± 21.66 32.91 ± 25.37 0.000* NA
History of Pan/gutka usage  
 Duration (unit)b 15.72 ± 6.34 15.24 ± 10.28 0.532 NA
History of pan/gutkac  
 Yes 36(92.3) 45(68.2) 0.004* 0.179 (0.049–0.647)
 No 3(7.7) 21(31.8)
Genderc     
 Male 31(79.5) 48(72.7) 0.438** 0.688 (0.267–1.775)
 Female 8(20.5) 18(27.3)
Sited  
 Oral cavity proper/buccal mucosa 27(69.2) 44(66.7) 0.165 NA
 Lip 4(10.3) 1(1.5)
 Tongue 7(17.9) 17(25.8)
 Soft Palate 1(2.6) 4(6.1)
Nodal Staged   
 N0 18(46.2) 36(54.5) 0.102** NA
 N1 3(7.7) 12(18.2)
 N2b 17(43.6) 17(25.8)
 N2c 1(2.6) 0(0)
 N3 0(0) 1(1.5)
Extranodal extentionc   
 Present 11(28.2) 18(27.3) 0.918** 1.048 (0.433–2.534
 Not Present 28(71.8) 48(72.7)
Histological Subtypesc     
 Non-keratinizing 7(17.9) 10(15.2) 0.738** NA
 Keratinizing 20(51.3) 39(59.1)
 Keratinizing with maturation 12(30.8) 17(25.8)
Histological Graded  
 Grade I 7(17.9) 18(27.3) 0.570** NA
 Grade II 28(71.8) 42(63.6)
 Grade III 4(10.3) 6(9.1)
Lymphovascular Invasion  
 Present 0(0) 0(0) NA NA
 Not Present 66(100) 39(100)
Perineural Invasionc  
Present 9(23.1) 7(10.6) 0.086** 2.529 (0.858–7.454)
Not Present 30(76.9) 59(89.4)
Recurrencec  
Yes 29(74.4) 26(39.4) 0.001* 0.224 (0.094–0.536)
No 10(25.6) 40(60.6)
  1. aIndependent t test was applied
  2. bMann-Whitney Test was applied
  3. cChi-Square Test was applied
  4. dFisher Exact Test was applied
  5. P-Value≤0.05, considered as significant
  6. *Significant at 0.05 level
  7. **Significant at 0.05 level