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Table 2 Factors associated with awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Benin and Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa

From: Prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer awareness among women of reproductive age: evidence from Benin and Zimbabwe population-based data

Variable Benin Zimbabwe
Adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) P Adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) P
Age (years) of respondent (ref: 15–19)
 20–24 1.99 (1.42–2.78) < 0.001* 1.77 (1.46–2.14) < 0.001*
 25–29 2.51 (1.72–3.67) < 0.001* 2.80 (2.24–3.51) < 0.001*
 30–34 2.48 (1.62–3.80) < 0.001* 3.89 (3.06–4.93) < 0.001*
 35–39 2.74 (1.78–4.25) < 0.001* 4.49 (3.44–5.85) < 0.001*
 40–44 3.91 (2.47–6.17) < 0.001* 4.58 (3.45–6.09) < 0.001*
 45–49 3.11 (1.96–4.95) < 0.001* 5.01 (3.61–6.96) < 0.001*
Residential status (ref: Urban)
 Rural 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.043* 0.80 (0.62–1.03) 0.084
Education level (ref: None)
 Primary 1.34 (1.01–1.81) 0.049* 1.50 (0.93–2.40) 0.097
 Secondary 2.53 (1.70–3.78) < 0.001* 2.91 (1.78–4.76) < 0.001*
 Higher 4.19 (2.36–7.44) < 0.001* 6.34 (2.98–13.46) < 0.001*
Religious belief (ref: Christianity)
 Islam 0.65 (0.50–0.86) 0.002* 0.50 (0.19–1.33) 0.165
 Traditional/others 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 0.258 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 0.606
Literacy (ref: Cannot read at all)
 Able to read only part of sentence 0.88 (0.59–1.31) 0.526 1.93 (1.43–2.59) < 0.001*
 Able to read whole sentence 1.12 (0.78–1.59) 0.545 1.63 (1.27–2.08) < 0.001*
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine (ref: Not at all)
 Less than once a week 0.99 (0.73–1.35) 0.968 1.68 (1.43–1.96) < 0.001*
 At least once a week 0.70 (0.48–1.03) 0.068 1.59 (1.28–1.98) < 0.001*
Frequency of listening to radio (ref: Not at all)
 Less than once a week 1.07 (0.83–1.38) 0.608 1.07 (0.92–1.26) 0.365
 At least once a week 1.21 (0.96–1.52) 0.100 1.59 (1.37–1.84) < 0.001*
Frequency of watching television (ref: Not at all)
 Less than once a week 1.50 (1.16–1.93) 0.002* 1.14 (0.94–1.38) 0.194
 At least once a week 1.44 (1.10–1.89) 0.008* 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 0.586
Frequency of using internet (ref: Not at all)
 Less than once a week 2.40 (1.25–4.59) 0.008* 1.68 (1.02–2.76) 0.042*
 At least once a week 1.83 (1.17–2.84) 0.008* 1.52 (1.06–2.20) 0.023*
 Almost every day 2.77 (1.96–3.93) < 0.001* 1.90 (1.50–2.39) < 0.001*
Wealth quintile (ref: Poorest)
 Poorer 0.88 (0.60–1.30) 0.529 1.20 (1.01–1.43) 0.050*
 Middle 1.09 (0.75–1.58) 0.660 1.30 (1.08–1.57) 0.007*
 Richer 1.06 (0.72–1.53) 0.766 1.45 (1.13–1.88) 0.004*
 Richest 1.21 (0.81–1.82) 0.356 1.68 (1.20–2.34) 0.002*
Marital status (ref: Never in union)
 Currently in union/living with a man 0.86 (0.65–1.15) 0.321 1.95 (1.63–2.33) < 0.001*
 Formerly in union/lived with a man 1.05 (0.68–1.60) 0.832 1.83 (1.42–2.36) < 0.001*
Occupation (ref: Not working)
 Professional/technical/managerial 1.74 (1.20–2.54) 0.004* 2.24 (1.27–3.95) 0.005*
 Sales 1.45 (1.11–1.91) 0.007* 1.17 (0.98–1.39) 0.080
 Agricultural 0.63 (0.41–0.95) 0.028* 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 0.521
 Services 1.84 (1.35–2.50) < 0.001* 1.27 (0.98–1.65) 0.074
 Skilled manual 0.91 (0.63–1.31) 0.628 0.89 (0.60–1.33) 0.583
Geographical region (ref: 1)
 2 2.09 (1.24–3.51) 0.005* 1.62 (1.26–2.08) < 0.001*
 3 1.47 (0.90–2.40) 0.127 1.39 (1.07–1.81) 0.014*
 4 0.22 (0.10–0.46) < 0.001* 1.52 (1.17–1.95) 0.001*
 5 2.54 (1.55–4.17) < 0.001* 0.74 (0.58–0.94) 0.016*
 6 2.08 (1.22–3.57) 0.007* 0.60 (0.47–0.78) < 0.001*
 7 1.22 (0.68–2.19) 0.507 0.93 (0.73–1.18) 0.533
 8 1.93 (1.18–3.19) 0.009* 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 0.576
 9 1.53 (0.88–2.67) 0.131 1.66 (1.23–2.23) 0.001*
 10 0.78 (0.46–1.33) 0.373 0.89 (0.66–1.21) 0.465
 11 0.66 (0.35–1.24) 0.202   
 12 1.67 (1.01–2.77) 0.048*   
  1. Benin: 1 = Alibori, 2 = Atacora, 3 = Atlantic, 4 = Borgou, 5 = Collines, 6 = Couffo, 7 = Donga, 8 = Littoral, 9 = Mono, 10 = Oueme, 11 = Plateau & 12 = Zou.
  2. Zimbabwe: 1 = Manicaland, 2 = Manicaland Central, 3 = Manicaland East, 4 = Manicaland West, 5 = Manicaland North, 6 = Manicaland South, 7 = Midlands, 8 = Masvingo, 9 = Harare & 10 = Bulawayo.
  3. *Significant at p < 0.05
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