Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et al. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. GLOBOCAN v1.0 Lyon, France; 2012.
Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of eighteen major cancers in. Int J Cancer. 1985;1993:594–606.
Nagini S. Carcinoma of the stomach: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular genetics and chemoprevention. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2012;4:156–69.
Bertuccio P, Chatenoud L, Levi F, Praud D, Ferlay J, Negri E, et al. Recent patterns in gastric cancer: a global overview. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:666–73.
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893–917.
Matsuda A, Machii R. Trends in stomach cancer mortality rates in Japan, USA, UK, France and Korea based on the WHO mortality database. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012;42:154.
Latorre MR. Stomach cancer mortality in Brazil: from 1977 to 1989. Cad Saude Pub. 1997;13:67–78.
Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, Chatenoud L, Negri E, Levi F, La Vecchia C. Trends in cancer mortality in the Americas, 1970–2000. Ann Oncol. 2006;16:489–511.
Dikshit R, Gupta PC, Ramasundarahettige C, Gajalakshmi V, Aleksandrowicz L, Badwe R, et al. Cancer mortality in India: a nationally representative survey. Lancet. 2012;379:1807–16.
Bosetti C, Rodríguez T, Chatenoud L, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Negri E, et al. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico, 1981–2007. Eur J Prev Cancer. 2011;20:355.
Ferro A, Peleteiro B, Malvezzic M, Bosetti C, Bertuccio P, Levi F, et al. Worldwide trends in gastric cancer mortality (1980–2011), with predictions to 2015, and incidence by subtype. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:1330–44.
Chatenoud L, Bertuccio P, Bosetti C, Levi F, Curado MP, Malvezzi M, et al. Trends in cancer mortality in Brazil, 1980–2004. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19:79–86.
Silva GA, Gamarra CJ, Girianelli VR, Valente JG. Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006. Cad Saude Pub. 2011;45:1009–18.
Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Faerstein E, Mariotto A, de Britto AV, Moreira Filho DC, Latorre MR. Survival in gastric cancer patients in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Pub. 2006;22:1611–8.
Resende AL, Mattos IE, Koifman S. Gastric cancer mortality in the State of Pará, Brazil, 1980–1997. Arq Gastroenterol. 2006;43:247–51.
SEER Cancer Statistics Factsheets: Stomach Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/stomach.html. Accessed in 21 Apr 2016.
Lauren P. The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal type carcinoma: an atempt at a histo-clinical classification. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1965;64:31–49.
Wong SS, Kim KM, Ting JC, Yu K, Fu J, Liu S, et al. Genomic landscape and genetic heterogeneity in gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by whole-genome sequencing. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5477.
Wang K, Yuen ST, Xu J, Lee SP, Yan HH, Shi ST, et al. Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling identify new driver mutations in gastric cancer. Nat Genet. 2014;46:573–82.
Kakiuchi M, Nishizawa T, Ueda H, Gotoh K, Tanaka A, Hayashi A, et al. Recurrent gain-of-function mutations of RHOA in diffuse-type gastric carcinoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:583–7.
TCGA. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2014;513:202–9.
Parsonnet J, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1127–31.
Warren JR, Marshall B. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet. 1983;1:1273–5.
IARC, IARC Monographs on the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 7–14 June 1994. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 1994;61:1–241.
Roesler BM, Costa SCB, Zeitune JMR. Eradication Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Its Importance and Possible Relationship in Preventing the Development of Gastric Cancer. ISRN Gastroenterol. 2012;2012:935410.
Fukase K, Kato M, Kikuchi S, Inoue K, Uemura N, Okamoto S, et al. Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372:392–7.
Amedei A, Della Bella C, Silvestri E, Prisco D, D’Elios MM. T cells in gastric cancer: friends or foes. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:690571.
Parsonnet J, Vandersteen D, Goates J, Sibley RK, Pritkin J, Chang Y. Helicobacter pylori infection in intestinal and dissude-type gastric adenocarcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:640–3.
Polk DB, Peek RM. Helicobacter pylori: gastric cancer and beyond. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10:403–14.
Ashour AA, Magalhães PP, Mendes EN, Collares GB, Gusmão VR, Queiroz DM, et al. Distribution of vacA genotypes in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Brazilian adult patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer or gastric carcinoma. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002;33:173–8.
Young LS, Rickinson AB. Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4:757–68.
Begnami MD, Montagnini AL, Vettore AL, Nonogaki S, Brait M, Simoes-Sato AY, et al. Differential expression of apoptosis related proteins and nitric oxide synthases in Epstein Barr associated gastric carcinomas. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4959–65.
de Souza CR, de Oliveira KS, Ferraz JJ, Leal MF, Calcagno DQ, Seabra AD, et al. Occurrence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus infection in endoscopic and gastric cancer patients from Northern Brazil. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:179.
Koriyama C, Akiba S, Iriya K, Yamaguti T, Hamada GS, Itoh T, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2001;92:911–7.
Murphy G, Pfeiffer R, Camargo MC, Rabkin CS. Meta-analysis shows that prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer differs based on sex and anatomic location. Gastroenterol. 2009;137:824–33.
Chen JN, He D, Tang F, Shao CK. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: a newly defined entity. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46:262–71.
Koriyama C, Akiba S, Itoh T, Kijima Y, Sueyoshi K, Corvalan A, et al. Prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus involvement in gastric carcinoma in Japan. Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:635–9.
Kijima Y, Ishigami S, Hokita S, Koriyama C, Akiba S, Eizuru Y, et al. The comparison of the prognosis between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric carcinomas and EBV-negative ones. Cancer Lett. 2003;200:33–40.
Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. Are We Really Vastly Outnumbered? Revisiting the ratio of bacterial to host cells in humans. Cell. 2016;164:337–40.
Gill SR, Pop M, Deboy RT, Eckburg PB, Turnbaugh PJ, Samuel BS, et al. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Science. 2006;312:1355–9.
Conlan S, Kong HH, Segre JA. Species-level analysis of DNA sequence data from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. PLoS One. 2012;7:e47075.
Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:50–60.
Thomas AM, Gleber-Netto FO, Fernandes GR, Amorim M, Barbosa LF, et al. Alcohol and tobacco consumption affects bacterial richness in oral cavity mucosa biofilms. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:250.
Wang ZK, Yang YS. Upper gastrointestinal microbiota and digestive diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:1541–50.
Stearns JC, Lynch MD, Senadheera DB, Tenenbaum HC, Goldberg MB, Cvitkovitch DG, et al. Bacterial biogeography of the human digestive tract. Sci Rep. 2011;1:170.
Aviles-Jimenez F, Vazquez-Jimenez F, Medrano-Guzman R, Mantilla A, Torres J. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4202.
Tseng CH, Lin JT, Ho HJ, Lai ZL, Wang CB, Tang SL, et al. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions are altered after subtotal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20701.
Jo HJ, Kim J, Kim N, Park JH, Nam RH, Seok YJ, et al. Analysis of Gastric Microbiota by Pyrosequencing: Minor Role of Bacteria Other Than Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Carcinogenesis. Helicobacter. 2016. In press.
Taborda AG, Prolla JC. Alimentary factors in the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia in functional dyspeptic patients. Arq Gastroenterol. 2012;49:208–13.
Park B, Shin A, Park SK, Ko KP, Ma SH, Lee EH, et al. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:1497–502.
Correa P. Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process--First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Cancer Res. 1992;52:6735–40.
Lunet N, Lacerda-Vieira A, Barros H. Fruit and vegetables consumption and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53:1–10.
Chen ZM, Peto R, Iona A, Guo Y, Chen YP, Bian Z, et al. China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group. Emerging tobacco-related cancer risks in China: A nationwide, prospective study of 0.5 million adults. Cancer. 2015;17:3097–106.
Peleteiro B, Castro C, Morais S, Ferro A, Lunet N. Worldwide burden of gastric cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in 2012 and predictions for 2020. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:2470–6.
Tramacere I, Negri E, Pelucchi C, Bagnardi V, Rota M, Scotti L, et al. A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:28–36.
Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:505–27.
Tsugane S, de Souza JM, Costa ML, Mirra AP, Gotlied SL, Laurenti R, et al. Cancer incidence rates among Japanese immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1969–78. Cancer Causes Control. 1990;1:189–93.
Iwasaki M, Mameri CP, Hamada GS, Tsugane S. Cancer mortality among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1999–2001. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2004;34:673–80.
Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, Ward EM. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1893–907.
Theuer CP, Kurosaki T, Ziogas A, Butler J, Anton-Culver H. Asian patients with gastric carcinoma in the United States exhibit unique clinical features and superior overall and cancer specific survival rates. Cancer. 2000;89:1883–92.
Kim J, Sun CL, Mailey B, Prendergast C, Artinyan A, Bhatia S, et al. Race and ethnicity correlate with survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:152–60.
Ohtsu A, Shah MA, Van Cutsem E, Rha SY, Sawaki A, Park SR, et al. Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line therapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:3968–76.
Kim S, Chung JW, Jeong TD, et al. Searching for E-cadherin gene mutations in early onset diffuse gastric cancer and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer in Korean patients. Fam Cancer. 2013;12:503–7.
Kong X, Wang JL, Chen HM, Fang JY. Comparison of the clinicopathological characteristics of young and elderly patients with gastric carcinoma: a meta analysis. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:346–52.
Corso G, Pedrazzani C, Pinheiro H, Fernandes E, Marrelli D, Rinnovati A, et al. E-cadherin genetic screening and clinico-pathologic characteristics of early onset gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:631–9.
Corso G, Marrelli D, Pascale V, Vindigni C, Roviello F. Frequency of CDH1 germline mutations in gastric carcinoma coming from high- and low-risk areas: metanalysis and systematic review of the literature. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:8.
Kaurah P, MacMillan A, Boyd N, Senz J, De Luca A, Chun N, et al. Founder and recurrent CDH1 mutations in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. JAMA. 2007;297:2360–2.
Brooks-Wilson A, Kaurah P, Suriano G, Leach S, Senz J, Grehan N, et al. Germline E-cadherin mutations in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: assessment of 42 families and review of genetic screening criteria. J Med Genet. 2004;41:508–17.
Carneiro F, Oliveira C, Suriano G, Seruca R. Molecular pathology of familial gastric cancer, withan emphasis on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2008;61:25–30.
Yu QM, Wang XB, Luo J, Wang S, Fang XH, Yu JL, et al. CDH1 methylation in preoperative peritoneal washes is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:765–71.
Mastoraki A, Danias N, Arkadopoulos N, Sakorafas G, Vasiliou P, Smyrniotis V. Prophylactic total gastrectomy for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Review of the literature. Surg Oncol. 2011;20:e223–6.
da Silva FC, Oliveira LP, Santos EM, Nakagawa WT, Aguiar Jr S, Valentin MD, et al. Frequency of extracolonic tumors in Brazilian families with Lynch syndrome: analysis of a hereditary colorectal cancer institutional registry. Fam Cancer. 2010;9:563–70.
Ferreira FO, Ferreira CC, Rossi BM, Nakagawa WT, Aguilar S, Santos EM, et al. Frequency of extra-colonic tumors in HNPCC and familial colorectal cancer Brazilian families. Fam Cancer. 2004;3:41–7.
Simpson AJ, Caballero OL, Pena SD. Microsatellite instability as a tool for the classification of gastric cancer. Trends Mol Med. 2001;7:76–80.
Ferrasi AC, Pinheiro NA, Rabenhorst SH, Caballero OL, Rodrigues MA, de Carvalho F, et al. Helicobacter pylori and EBV in gastric carcinomas: Methylation status and microsatellite instability. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:312–9.
Holbrook JD, Parker JS, Gallagher KT, Halsey WS, Hughes AM, Weigman VJ, et al. Deep sequencing of gastric carcinoma reveals somatic mutations relevant to personalized medicine. J Transl Med. 2011;9:119.
da Silva MC, Zuccherato LW, Lucena FC, Soares-Souza GB, Vieira ZM, Pena SD, et al. Extensive admixture in Brazilian sickle cell patients: implications for the mapping of genetic modifiers. Blood. 2011;118:4493–5.
Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. New Engl J Med. 2006;355:11–20.
Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP, Conroy T, Bouche O, Lebreton G, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1715–21.
Mansour JC, Tang L, Shah M, Bentrem D, Klimstra DS, Gonen M, et al. Does graded histologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predict survival for completely resected gastric cancer? Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:3412–8.
Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A, Chung HC, Shen L, Sawaki A, et al. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:687–97.
Begnami MD, Fukuda E, Fregnani JH, Nonogaki S, Montagnini AL, da Costa Jr WL, et al. Prognostic implications of altered human epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) in gastric carcinomas: HER2 and HER3 are predictors of poor outcome. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:3030–6.
Fuchs CS, Tomasek J, Yong CJ, Dumitru F, Passalacqua R, Goswami C, et al. Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (REGARD): an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014;383:31–9.
Wilke H, Muro K, Van Cutsem E, Oh SC, Bodoky G, Shimada Y, et al. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:1224–35.
Li J, Qin S, Xu J, Xiong J, Wu C, Bai Y, et al. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Trial of Apatinib in Patients With Chemotherapy-Refractory Advanced or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach or Gastroesophageal Junction. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:1448–54.
Zhang L, Qiu M, Jin Y, Ji J, Li B, Wang X, et al. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on gastric cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:11084–91.
Raufi AG, Klempner SJ. Immunotherapy for advanced gastric and esophageal cancer: preclinical rationale and ongoing clinical investigations. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2015;6:561–9.
Alix-Panabières C, Pantel K. Challenges in circulating tumour cell research. Nature Rev Cancer. 2014;14:623–31.
Mukai M. Occult neoplastic cells and malignant micro-aggregates in lymph node sinuses: review and hypothesis. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:173–5.
Aceto N, Bardia A, Miyamoto DT, Donaldson MC, Wittner BS, Spencer JA, et al. Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis. Cell. 2014;158:1110–22.
Paterlini-Brechot P, Benali NL. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) detection: clinical impact and future directions. Cancer Lett. 2007;253:180–204.
Hiraiwa K, Takeuchi H, Hasegawa H, Saikawa Y, Suda K, Ando T, et al. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in blood from patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:3092–100.
Matsusaka S, Chin K, Ogura M, Suenaga M, Shinozaki E, Mishima Y, et al. Circulating tumor cells as a surrogate marker for determining response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1067–71.
Zhang Z, Dai Z, Yin X, Li S, Li S, Ge H. Meta-analysis shows that circulating tumor cells including circulating microRNAs are useful to predict the survival of patients with gastric cancer. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:773.
Huang X, Gao P, Sun J, Chen X, Song Y, Zhao J, et al. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in patients with gastric cancer: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:21–33.
Raposo G, Stoorvogel W. Extracellular vesicles: exosomes, microvesicles, and friends. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:373–83.
Lee TH, D’Asti E, Magnus N, Al-Nedawi K, Meehan B, Rak J. Microvesicles as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer--the emerging science of cellular “debris”. Semin Immunopathol. 2011;33:455–67.
Peinado H, Aleckovic A, Lavotshkin S, Matei I, Costa-Silva B, Moreno-Bueno G, et al. Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET. Nat Med. 2012;18:883–91.
Hood JL, San RS, Wickline SA. Exosomes released by melanoma cells prepare sentinel lymph nodes for tumor metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3792–801.
Roberson CD, Atay S, Gercel-Taylor C, Taylor DD. Tumor-derived exosomes as mediators of disease and potential diagnostic biomarkers. Cancer Biomark. 2010–2011;8:281–91
Skog J, Wurdinger T, Rijn S, Meijer D, Gainche L, Sena-Esteves M, et al. Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1470–6.
Amorim M, Fernandes G, Oliveira P, Martins-de-Souza D, Dias-Neto E, Nunes DN. The overexpression of a single oncogene (ERBB2/HER2) alters the proteomic landscape of extracellular vesicles. Proteomics. 2014;14:1472–9.
Tajiri R, Ooi A, Fujimura T, Dobashi Y, Oyama T, Nakamura R, et al. Intratumoral heterogeneous amplification of ERBB2 and subclonal genetic diversity in gastric cancers revealed by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hum Pathol. 2014;45:725–34.
Baran J, Baj-Krzyworzeka M, Weglarczyk K, Szatanek R, Zembala M, Barbasz J, et al. Circulating tumour-derived microvesicles in plasma of gastric cancer patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:841–50.
Qu JL, Zhao MF, Qu XJ, Teng YE, Zhang Y, Hou KZ, et al. Gastric cancer exosomes promote tumour cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK activation. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:875–80.
Li Q, Shao Y, Zhang X, Zheng T, Miao M, Qin L, et al. Plasma long noncoding RNA protected by exosomes as a potential stable biomarker for gastric cancer. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:2007–12.